Storage Systems and Thermal Treatments

Storage Systems

Storage Systems and Thermal Treatments
For the deposit of various materials and the growth of thin films, we have the following techniques:
Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) is characterized by a process in which the material passes from a condensed phase to a vapor phase and then back to a condensed thin film phase. The most common PVD processes are sputtering, resistive and electron beam evaporation, pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and closed space sublimation (CSS).
In chemical vapour deposition (CVD) the substrate (wafer) is exposed to one or more volatile precursors, which react or decompose on the surface of the substrate to produce the desired deposit.
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a technique to control the growth of thin films at the atomic level. ALD is based on sequentially obtaining self-controlled stable states at the surface.
Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) is a common technique in the growth of semiconductor heterostructures because of the great crystalline perfection it achieves. The molecular beams impact on a substrate and several chemical reactions cause the deposition of successive monolayers.
Spin Coating is a procedure used to deposit thin uniform films on flat substrates. Usually a small amount of coating material is applied to the centre of the substrate, which is rotating at low speed or not at all. The substrate is then rotated at high speed to spread the coating material by centrifugal force.
E-Spinning is a method of producing nanofibres and nanoparticles that uses an electric field to grow a material from polymer solutions to fibre diameters at the nanoscale.

Thermal Treatments

Storage Systems and Thermal Treatments
Rapid heat treatments (RTP) are processes in which silicon wafers are heated to high temperatures (over 1000 °C) over a time scale of several seconds or less. However, during cooling, the wafer temperatures must be lowered slowly to avoid dislocation and breakage of the wafer due to thermal shock. These processes are used for a wide variety of applications in semiconductor manufacturing, including dopant activation, thermal oxidation, metal reflux, and chemical vapor deposition.